Discover the Joy of Rescue Greyhounds: A Guide to Adoption and Care


Discover the Joy of Rescue Greyhounds: A Guide to Adoption and Care

Discover the World of Rescue Greyhounds: A Haven for Retired Racers

Rescue greyhounds are former racing dogs that have been retired from the sport and placed in loving homes through adoption. These gentle giants often find themselves in need of a new home due to injury, age, or simply a change in their racing career. However, rescue greyhounds make excellent companions for people of all ages and lifestyles, offering unwavering loyalty, playful energy, and a unique zest for life.

The significance of rescue greyhounds lies in their resilience, adaptability, and profound capacity for affection. Throughout history, greyhounds have been revered for their athleticism and grace, yet their retirement often marks a crossroads in their lives. Rescue organizations dedicated to greyhound adoption play a vital role in providing these extraordinary animals with a second chance at happiness. As we delve into the world of rescue greyhounds, we will explore the remarkable stories of their transition from the racetrack to the comfort of a loving home.

In the following sections, we will delve into the intricacies of greyhound adoption, shedding light on the process, the costs involved, and the essential steps to ensure a smooth transition for both the greyhound and the adoptive family. We will also uncover the unique challenges that retired greyhounds may face, ranging from behavioral quirks to health considerations. Through these insights, we aim to empower potential adopters with the knowledge and resources necessary to provide a fulfilling and enriching life for a rescue greyhound.

Rescue Greyhounds: Key Points

Understanding the key points about rescue greyhounds is essential for anyone considering adopting one of these remarkable animals. These points shed light on the unique characteristics, needs, and challenges associated with greyhound adoption, enabling potential adopters to make informed decisions and provide the best possible care for their new companion.

  • Gentle Giants: Known for their calm and affectionate nature.
  • Athletic and Agile: Enjoy activities like running, chasing, and playing.
  • Low-Maintenance Grooming: Short coats require minimal brushing.
  • Independent and Clean: Generally housetrained and easy to care for.
  • Sensitive and Empathetic: Deeply connected to their human companions.
  • Prone to Separation Anxiety: May require gradual acclimation to alone time.
  • Potential Health Issues: Susceptible to conditions like osteosarcoma and bloat.
  • Lifelong Commitment: Greyhounds can live up to 12 years or more.

These key points highlight the multifaceted nature of rescue greyhounds. Their gentle and loving temperament, combined with their athleticism and independence, make them ideal companions for active families, individuals, and seniors alike. However, potential adopters should be aware of the unique challenges associated with greyhounds, such as their susceptibility to certain health conditions and their potential for separation anxiety. With proper care, training, and a loving home, rescue greyhounds can thrive and bring immense joy to their families for many years to come. These points underscore the importance of responsible adoption and the commitment required to provide a rescue greyhound with a safe and fulfilling life.

Gentle Giants: Known for their Calm and Affectionate Nature

The phrase “Gentle Giants” aptly describes the calm and affectionate nature that is a hallmark of rescue greyhounds. This inherent gentleness stems from their breeding and history as sighthounds, where they were prized for their ability to chase and capture prey with minimal aggression. Their innate docility and eagerness to please make them exceptional companions for families with children and individuals seeking a loving and loyal pet.

  • Unwavering Loyalty: Greyhounds form deep bonds with their human companions and are known for their unwavering loyalty. They thrive on human interaction and affection, becoming devoted members of the family.
  • Patient and Gentle: Greyhounds exhibit remarkable patience and gentleness, making them ideal companions for children. They are known to be tolerant and understanding, even with rambunctious youngsters.
  • Low-Key and Affectionate: Unlike some breeds that require constant activity, greyhounds are generally content to lounge around the house and cuddle with their owners. They are affectionate and enjoy physical contact, making them perfect lapdogs.
  • Minimal Barking: Greyhounds are not prone to excessive barking, making them suitable for apartment living or homes in close proximity to neighbors. Their quiet nature adds to their appeal as ideal companions for those seeking a peaceful and tranquil home environment.

The calm and affectionate nature of rescue greyhounds makes them exceptional companions for people from all walks of life. Their gentle demeanor, unwavering loyalty, and minimal maintenance requirements contribute to their popularity as beloved family pets. Understanding this aspect of greyhounds’ personalities is crucial for potential adopters to appreciate the unique qualities that make them such cherished members of the dog-loving community.

Athletic and Agile: Enjoy activities like running, chasing, and playing.

The athleticism and agility of rescue greyhounds are defining characteristics that influence their overall well-being and interaction with the world around them. These traits are deeply ingrained in their history as sighthounds, bred for their remarkable speed and ability to chase and capture prey.

Cause and Effect: The athleticism and agility of rescue greyhounds are both a cause and effect of their unique history and physiology. Their muscular build, long legs, and lean bodies have been selectively bred over generations to optimize their performance on the racetrack. This innate athleticism, combined with their high energy levels, makes them prone to certain behavioral tendencies and health considerations.

Components: Athleticism and agility are integral components of a rescue greyhound’s physical and mental well-being. Regular exercise is not just a pastime for these dogs; it is a necessity for maintaining their muscular strength, cardiovascular health, and overall happiness. Physical activity helps them burn off excess energy, preventing boredom and destructive behaviors.

Examples: The athleticism and agility of rescue greyhounds manifest in various ways. They excel in activities like running, chasing balls or toys, and playing fetch. Their incredible speed and agility make them natural athletes, capable of reaching speeds of up to 45 miles per hour. Additionally, their playful nature and love of running make them excellent companions for outdoor adventures like hiking, jogging, or simply playing in the park.

Applications: Understanding the athleticism and agility of rescue greyhounds is important for practical applications in their care and training. Adopters should provide ample opportunities for exercise and playtime to keep their greyhounds physically and mentally stimulated. This can include daily walks, visits to dog parks, or enrollment in organized activities like agility courses or lure coursing. Providing outlets for their energy and athleticism helps prevent boredom, destructive behaviors, and weight gain.

Follow-up/Concluding Paragraph: In conclusion, the athleticism and agility of rescue greyhounds are fundamental aspects of their nature, deeply rooted in their history and physiology. Understanding these traits is essential for providing them with the care and environment they need to thrive. While their athleticism and agility bring immense joy and companionship, they also necessitate responsible ownership and a commitment to meeting their exercise and stimulation needs.

Low-Maintenance Grooming: Short coats require minimal brushing.

Rescue greyhounds possess short, single-layer coats that require minimal brushing and maintenance, making them an ideal choice for busy individuals or those seeking a low-maintenance pet. This section delves into the various aspects of their low-maintenance grooming needs, highlighting the benefits and implications for potential adopters.

  • Short and Smooth Coat: Greyhounds have short, smooth coats that lie close to the body, reducing the amount of shedding and mats. This makes them easy to brush and maintain, requiring only a weekly brushing to remove dead hair and keep the coat healthy and shiny.
  • Minimal Shedding: Compared to other breeds with longer or double coats, greyhounds shed very little. This is particularly beneficial for individuals with allergies or those who prefer a cleaner living environment. Regular brushing helps to further reduce shedding and keep loose hair under control.
  • Quick and Easy Grooming: Grooming a rescue greyhound is a quick and easy process. A simple brushing session once a week is typically sufficient to keep their coat in top condition. This is especially convenient for those with busy lifestyles or limited time for pet care.
  • Low Maintenance Costs: The low-maintenance grooming needs of rescue greyhounds translate to lower grooming costs. Regular brushing can be done at home, eliminating the need for frequent visits to professional groomers. This can save pet owners money and time in the long run.

The low-maintenance grooming requirements of rescue greyhounds offer numerous benefits for potential adopters. Not only does it save time and money, but it also makes greyhounds an ideal choice for individuals or families with busy lifestyles. The ease of grooming also contributes to the overall health and well-being of the dog, as regular brushing helps to distribute natural oils throughout the coat, promoting skin and coat health.

Independent and Clean: Generally housetrained and easy to care for.

Rescue greyhounds are renowned for their independent and clean nature, making them generally housetrained and easy to care for. These attributes are both a cause and effect of their unique history and characteristics.

Cause and Effect: The independent nature of rescue greyhounds stems from their breeding and training as racing dogs. They are accustomed to spending time alone in their kennels and are generally not prone to separation anxiety. This independence makes them relatively easy to housetrain, as they can be left alone for short periods without causing accidents. Additionally, greyhounds are naturally clean animals and are known for their minimal shedding and low maintenance grooming needs.

Components: The independent and clean nature of rescue greyhounds is an integral part of their overall personality and behavior. Their independence allows them to be comfortable in their own space, while their cleanliness makes them easy to maintain and care for. These traits contribute to the overall appeal of rescue greyhounds as pets, making them suitable for a wide range of living situations and lifestyles.

Examples: The independent and clean nature of rescue greyhounds is evident in their behavior and habits. They are often content to curl up on a dog bed or in a quiet corner of the house while their owners are away. They are also known for their minimal grooming needs, with a short, smooth coat that requires only occasional brushing. Additionally, greyhounds are generally quick to learn housetraining rules and are eager to please their owners.

Applications: Understanding the independent and clean nature of rescue greyhounds is important in practical applications of their care and training. Their independence allows them to be left alone for short periods without distress, making them suitable for busy individuals or families with long work hours. Their cleanliness makes them easy to maintain, reducing the time and effort required for grooming. Additionally, their housetraining abilities make them suitable for apartment living or homes with limited outdoor space.

Follow-up/Concluding Paragraph: In conclusion, the independent and clean nature of rescue greyhounds is both a cause and effect of their unique history and characteristics. These traits make them generally housetrained and easy to care for, contributing to their overall appeal as pets. Understanding these attributes is essential for potential adopters to appreciate the benefits and responsibilities of owning a rescue greyhound.

Sensitive and Empathetic: Deeply connected to their human companions.

Rescue greyhounds possess a remarkable capacity for sensitivity and empathy, forging deep and meaningful connections with their human companions. This inherent trait is a defining characteristic that sets them apart and contributes to their exceptional suitability as loving and devoted pets.

  • Emotional Intelligence: Greyhounds exhibit a profound understanding of human emotions. They are attuned to nonverbal cues, facial expressions, and the tone of voice, enabling them to sense and respond to their owners’ emotional states. This emotional intelligence makes them exceptional companions, offering comfort and support during times of distress.
  • Empathetic Nature: Greyhounds possess an innate ability to empathize with their owners’ feelings. They are known to mirror their owners’ emotions, expressing joy when their owners are happy and displaying concern or sadness when their owners are distressed. This empathetic nature creates a strong bond between greyhounds and their human companions, fostering a sense of mutual understanding and connection.
  • Intuitive Behavior: Rescue greyhounds are highly intuitive and often seem to know exactly what their owners need. They may offer comfort by snuggling close during times of sadness or excitement, or they may simply provide a calming presence when their owners are feeling stressed or overwhelmed. This intuitive behavior demonstrates the deep connection between greyhounds and their human companions.
  • Protective Instincts: Many rescue greyhounds exhibit strong protective instincts towards their owners. They may become alert and watchful in unfamiliar environments or when they sense a potential threat. This protective nature is a testament to the deep bond and loyalty that greyhounds feel towards their human companions.

The sensitivity and empathy of rescue greyhounds are not only endearing qualities but also contribute to their overall well-being. These dogs thrive on human interaction and affection, and their ability to connect deeply with their owners leads to happier and more fulfilling lives. Understanding and nurturing this unique aspect of their nature is essential for providing rescue greyhounds with the love and support they need to flourish.

Prone to Separation Anxiety: May require gradual acclimation to alone time.

Rescue greyhounds are known for their affectionate and devoted nature, but they can also be prone to separation anxiety. This is a condition where dogs experience distress and anxiety when they are left alone or separated from their owners. Understanding the causes, components, and practical applications of separation anxiety in rescue greyhounds is essential for providing them with the care and support they need to thrive.

Cause and Effect: Separation anxiety in rescue greyhounds can be attributed to several factors. Their strong attachment to their owners, coupled with their history of being kenneled or racing in a pack environment, can make them more susceptible to anxiety when left alone. Additionally, changes in routine or disruptions in their daily schedule can trigger separation anxiety.

Components: Separation anxiety in rescue greyhounds can manifest in various ways. Common symptoms include pacing, whining, barking, destructive behavior, and accidents in the house. In severe cases, dogs may attempt to escape or self-harm. Understanding these components is crucial for recognizing and addressing separation anxiety effectively.

Examples: Real-world examples illustrate the impact of separation anxiety in rescue greyhounds. For instance, a greyhound named Max may exhibit destructive behavior such as chewing furniture or scratching doors when left alone. Another greyhound, Bella, may whine and pace incessantly when her owners leave the house. These examples highlight the distress and anxiety that rescue greyhounds can experience when separated from their loved ones.

Applications: Understanding separation anxiety in rescue greyhounds has practical applications in their care and training. Gradual acclimation to alone time is essential to help them overcome their anxiety. This involves starting with short periods of separation and gradually increasing the duration as the dog becomes more comfortable. Providing them with a safe and comfortable space, such as a crate or a quiet room, can also help reduce their anxiety. Additionally, regular exercise and mental stimulation can help alleviate boredom and reduce the likelihood of destructive behaviors.

Follow-up/Concluding Paragraph: In conclusion, rescue greyhounds’ proneness to separation anxiety underscores the importance of understanding their emotional needs and providing them with the support they require. Through gradual acclimation to alone time, a safe and comfortable environment, and regular exercise, owners can help their greyhounds overcome separation anxiety and enjoy a happy and fulfilling life.

Challenge: Managing separation anxiety in rescue greyhounds can be challenging, especially for individuals with busy lifestyles or those who are away from home for extended periods. Patience, consistency, and a supportive approach are essential for helping greyhounds overcome their anxiety and build a secure attachment with their owners.

Broader Connection: Understanding separation anxiety in rescue greyhounds sheds light on the importance of considering a dog’s emotional well-being when adopting a pet. It also emphasizes the need for responsible ownership and commitment to providing dogs with the care and support they deserve.

Potential Health Issues: Susceptible to conditions like osteosarcoma and bloat.

Rescue greyhounds, despite their athleticism and gentle nature, are susceptible to certain health conditions that potential adopters should be aware of. Two common concerns are osteosarcoma and bloat, both of which can have serious consequences if not properly managed.

Cause and Effect: Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that is more prevalent in large and giant breeds like greyhounds. While the exact cause is unknown, factors such as genetics, growth rate, and environmental factors may play a role. Bloat, also known as gastric dilatation-volvulus, occurs when a dog’s stomach fills with gas and twists, cutting off blood supply to the stomach and other organs. Greyhounds’ deep chests and narrow abdomens make them more prone to this life-threatening condition.

Components: Understanding the components of osteosarcoma and bloat is crucial for early detection and prevention. Osteosarcoma typically affects the long bones of the legs and can cause lameness, swelling, and pain. Bloat, on the other hand, can manifest as a distended abdomen, restlessness, and attempts to vomit without producing much. Recognizing these signs and seeking immediate veterinary attention is essential.

Examples: Real-world examples illustrate the impact of osteosarcoma and bloat on rescue greyhounds. Max, a 7-year-old greyhound, was diagnosed with osteosarcoma in his right foreleg. After undergoing amputation and chemotherapy, Max recovered well and continues to enjoy an active life. Bella, a 5-year-old greyhound, experienced bloat and underwent emergency surgery to correct the twisted stomach. With proper care and dietary modifications, Bella made a full recovery.

Applications: Understanding the potential health issues faced by rescue greyhounds is important in providing them with the best possible care. Regular veterinary checkups, early detection, and preventive measures can significantly improve the chances of successful treatment and long-term well-being. Additionally, adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and regular exercise, can help reduce the risk of certain health conditions.

Follow-up/Concluding Paragraph: In conclusion, potential adopters of rescue greyhounds should be aware of the breed’s susceptibility to osteosarcoma and bloat. While these conditions can be serious, early detection and proper management can greatly improve the outcome. Regular veterinary care, a healthy lifestyle, and a supportive home environment are essential for ensuring the longevity and happiness of these gentle giants.

Challenge: The financial burden of treating osteosarcoma and bloat can be a challenge for some pet owners. Pet insurance or financial planning can help mitigate these costs and ensure that greyhounds receive the necessary medical care.

Broader Connection: Understanding the health risks associated with rescue greyhounds enhances the reader’s grasp of the importance of responsible adoption and the commitment required to providing these dogs with a loving and supportive home throughout their lives.

Lifelong Commitment: Greyhounds can live up to 12 years or more.

The concept of “Lifelong Commitment: Greyhounds can live up to 12 years or more.” holds significant relevance in the context of rescue greyhounds. Understanding this aspect is crucial for potential adopters to grasp the long-term responsibilities involved in providing a loving home to these gentle giants.

  • Longevity and Care: Greyhounds have a relatively long lifespan compared to other dog breeds, with an average life expectancy of 10 to 12 years or more. This extended lifespan entails a commitment to providing consistent care, attention, and financial resources throughout the dog’s life.
  • Aging and Health Considerations: As greyhounds age, they may experience various health issues common in senior dogs, such as arthritis, dental problems, and organ dysfunction. Regular veterinary checkups and preventive care become increasingly important to ensure early detection and management of these conditions.
  • Lifestyle Adjustments: Adopting a greyhound may require lifestyle adjustments to accommodate their needs. This may include modifying daily routines, providing suitable exercise, and creating a safe and comfortable home environment that caters to their changing abilities and preferences.
  • Emotional Bond and Responsibility: Greyhounds form deep emotional bonds with their owners and thrive on companionship. Adopting a greyhound is a commitment to providing a loving and stable home for the dog’s entire life, ensuring its emotional well-being and happiness.

Understanding the lifelong commitment involved in owning a rescue greyhound is essential for potential adopters to make informed decisions. It requires patience, dedication, and a willingness to provide unwavering care and support throughout the dog’s life. This commitment extends beyond the initial adoption process and encompasses the entirety of the greyhound’s life, ensuring its physical, emotional, and mental well-being.

Compare & Contrast: Unlike some smaller dog breeds with shorter lifespans, rescue greyhounds require a long-term commitment that spans more than a decade. This extended lifespan necessitates careful consideration of the dog’s needs and the owner’s ability to provide consistent care and support over the years.

FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions

This section aims to address some of the commonly asked questions regarding rescue greyhounds, providing valuable insights and clarifying any misconceptions. These questions cover various aspects, including adoption procedures, behavioral traits, health considerations, and more.

Question 1: How do I adopt a rescue greyhound?

Answer: The process of adopting a rescue greyhound typically involves contacting reputable greyhound adoption organizations or shelters. These organizations will guide you through the adoption process, which may include filling out an application, providing references, and undergoing a home visit to ensure a suitable living environment for the greyhound.

Question 2: Are rescue greyhounds suitable for first-time dog owners?

Answer: While greyhounds can make excellent companions for first-time dog owners, it’s important to understand their unique characteristics and needs. Greyhounds are generally gentle and affectionate, but they require regular exercise and proper training. Potential adopters should be prepared to provide a loving and supportive home, as greyhounds thrive on human companionship.

Question 3: Do rescue greyhounds have any specific health concerns?

Answer: Rescue greyhounds may be prone to certain health issues, such as osteosarcoma (a type of bone cancer) and bloat (a life-threatening condition caused by stomach torsion). Regular veterinary checkups and preventive care are essential to detect and manage these conditions early on. Additionally, greyhounds may experience anxiety or separation issues due to their strong attachment to their owners.

Question 4: How much exercise do rescue greyhounds need?

Answer: Rescue greyhounds are athletic dogs and require regular exercise to maintain their physical and mental well-being. Daily walks and playtime in a secure area are essential. Greyhounds also enjoy activities like lure coursing or agility training, which provide an outlet for their natural running instincts.

Question 5: Are rescue greyhounds good with children?

Answer: Greyhounds can be wonderful companions for families with children. They are typically gentle and patient, making them suitable playmates for older children. However, it’s crucial to supervise interactions between greyhounds and young children to ensure safety and respect for both parties.

Question 6: What is the average lifespan of a rescue greyhound?

Answer: The average lifespan of a rescue greyhound is generally between 10 and 12 years, although some individuals may live longer with proper care and nutrition. As with all dogs, regular veterinary checkups and a healthy lifestyle are essential for promoting longevity and overall well-being.

Closing: These FAQs provide insights into various aspects of rescue greyhound ownership. Understanding their unique traits, needs, and potential health concerns is crucial for potential adopters to make informed decisions and provide a loving and supportive home for these deserving dogs.

Transition: Now that we’ve covered some frequently asked questions about rescue greyhounds, let’s delve deeper into the process of adopting one. We’ll explore the steps involved, considerations to keep in mind, and tips for ensuring a smooth transition for both the greyhound and the adoptive family.

Dicas

Nesta seo, apresentamos dicas prticas para ajudar na adoo e no cuidado de galgos resgatados. Essas dicas podem contribuir para uma experincia positiva e bem-sucedida para os novos tutores e para os prprios ces.

Dica 1: Pesquise e escolha uma organizao respeitvel:
Ao adotar um galgo resgatado, importante escolher uma organizao respeitvel e confivel. Pesquise sobre a organizao, leia avaliaes e converse com outros tutores que adotaram por meio dela.Dica 2: Prepare sua casa e sua rotina:
Antes de trazer o galgo para casa, certifique-se de que o ambiente esteja preparado para receb-lo. Isso inclui tornar a casa prova de filhotes, fornecer uma caminha confortvel, brinquedos adequados e estabelecer uma rotina de alimentao e exerccios.Dica 3: Seja paciente e compreensivo:
Galgos resgatados podem levar algum tempo para se adaptarem ao novo ambiente e nova famlia. Seja paciente e compreensivo durante esse perodo. Evite punies e use tcnicas de reforo positivo para trein-lo.Dica 4: Oferea exerccios regulares:
Galgos so ces atlticos e precisam de exerccios regulares para se manterem saudveis e felizes. Leve-o para caminhadas dirias, brincadeiras no parque e, se possvel, pratique esportes caninos como agility ou coursing.Dica 5: Alimente-o com uma dieta saudvel:
A alimentao fundamental para a sade e o bem-estar do galgo. Oferea-lhe uma dieta equilibrada e de alta qualidade, rica em protenas e pobre em carboidratos. Evite alimentos processados e guloseimas em excesso.Dica 6: Leve-o ao veterinrio regularmente:
As visitas regulares ao veterinrio so essenciais para prevenir doenas e detectar problemas de sade precocemente. Leve o galgo para check-ups anuais e siga as recomendaes do veterinrio em relao a vacinas, vermifugao e outros cuidados preventivos.Dica 7: Socialize-o com outras pessoas e animais:
A socializao importante para que o galgo se torne um co equilibrado e socivel. Leve-o para parques, caminhadas em grupo e aulas de treinamento, onde ele poder interagir com outras pessoas e animais.Dica 8: Oferea-lhe muito amor e carinho:
Galgos so ces extremamente afetuosos e precisam de muito amor e carinho. Passe tempo com ele, brinque, faa carinho e demonstre seu afeto. Isso ajudar a fortalecer o vnculo entre vocs e torn-lo um co feliz e realizado.

Seguindo essas dicas, voc pode proporcionar uma vida feliz e saudvel para o seu galgo resgatado. Lembre-se de que cada co nico e pode ter necessidades especficas. Esteja atento ao comportamento do seu galgo e adapte as dicas s suas caractersticas individuais.

Na concluso, a adoo de um galgo resgatado uma experincia gratificante e enriquecedora. Seguindo as dicas apresentadas nesta seo, voc pode ajudar o seu novo companheiro a se adaptar sua casa e sua famlia, proporcionando-lhe uma vida feliz e saudvel.

Concluso

O artigo explorou uma variedade de tpicos relacionados aos galgos de resgate, destacando sua histria, caractersticas nicas, desafios comuns e a importncia da adoo responsvel. Esses ces gentis e atlticos podem ser companheiros maravilhosos, mas tambm apresentam necessidades especficas que os tutores em potencial devem considerar.

Dois pontos principais emergem da discusso: a importncia da adoo responsvel e o compromisso necessrio para fornecer um lar adequado para esses ces. A adoo de um galgo de resgate uma deciso sria que deve ser tomada aps uma pesquisa cuidadosa e uma compreenso clara das necessidades e desafios potenciais.

No entanto, os benefcios de adotar um galgo de resgate so inmeros. Esses ces so conhecidos por sua lealdade, afeto e personalidade gentil. Eles so timos companheiros para famlias ativas e indivduos que buscam um co atltico e brincalho.

Ao adotar um galgo de resgate, voc no apenas est dando um lar a um co necessitado, mas tambm est contribuindo para a causa da adoo responsvel e ajudando a promover a conscientizao sobre esses ces maravilhosos. Com amor, pacincia e um compromisso de longo prazo, voc pode proporcionar ao seu galgo de resgate uma vida feliz e saudvel.

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